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Complications and Precautions after tooth removal, Tonsils and Immunity


Complications and Precautions after tooth removal.





What do you mean by teeth removal? Teeth are removed for a variety of reasons. If a tooth has been cracked or spoiled by decay, beyond damage and decay here are some reasons for tooth removal like some people have extra teeth that block other teeth from coming in. People who want to braces their teeth to align them need teeth removal to create room for the teeth that are being moved into place. People receiving cancer drugs weaken the immune system, infected teeth may need to be removed. Wisdom teeth also called third molars are often removed either before or after erupts in the mouth, they commonly come in during the late teens or early ’20s or too late.

They need to be removed if they are decayed, infected, or if there is not enough space in the mouth. In some kids, milk teeth don’t fall out in time to allow the permanent teeth to come in. In these conditions, we should meet our dentist for an examination of the tooth. Then the dentist will decide whether the tooth can be saved or removed. If it is in bad condition the dentist suggests the removal of teeth. How a dentist will perform tooth removal? The dentist will examine and X-ray the area to determine the treatment you need. You will also be asked for your dental and medical history along with a list of medications and allergies to avoid complications.
There are two types of teeth removal one is the simple removal of teeth and one more is the surgical removal of teeth performed by an oral surgeon. In simple teeth removal, the dentist loosens the tooth with an instrument by giving local anesthesia. Surgical teeth removal is a bit complicated procedure, that if the tooth has broken or not fully emerged you will be treated surgically. Mostly third molars or wisdom teeth are recommended for surgical removal.
What are all complications and precautions after or before teeth removal? Complications after teeth removal, there are several effects such as pain, inflammation, bleeding or infection, delayed healing, improper teeth alignment, nerve injury, etc. We should be very careful after teeth removal. So, we should take some precautions, avoid hot food or drinks until the anesthetic wears off. This is important as you cannot feel pain properly and may burn your mouth. Do not rinse your mouth for the first 24 hours, it is important to allow the socket to heal. You should be careful not to damage the clot by eating on that side or letting your tongue disrupt it. Avoid alcohol consumption and smoking for at least 24 hours.
After the teeth removal, you may experience some swelling around the mouth, cheeks, eyes, and side of the face. This is the body’s normal and healthy reaction after surgery. And it is minimized by the immediate use of ice packs. Ice packs should be applied to the outside of the face over the area where the tooth was removed. And taking liquid food to avoid pressure on the treated area. On occasion, some residential swelling may last a week or longer. The dentist will prescribe pre or post medications before and after teeth removal.

Tonsils and Immunity

Tonsils are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the aerodigestive tract They are the first-line defense against inhaled or ingested pathogens. They are bombarded by numbers of pathogens antigens as compared to other lymphoid tissue which receives pathogen antigen only via the bloodstream.

Tonsils have specialized micropore (M) cells with a tubulovesicular system for antigen transport. At the center of tonsil nodules, there is a germinal center containing densely packed lymphocytes. The antigen-presenting M cells signal the T cells and B cells. B cells produce antibodies mainly IgA which acts as mucosal immune protection. Many of the T cells regulate the antibody response. Other T cells show delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to large fungi. Another type of T cells can kill virally infected cells. Tonsillar T cell secretes interferon-gamma. Natural killer cells are also present in tonsils.

There are four types of tonsils namely palatine, pharyngeal also known as adenoids, lingual and tubal which form a ring around the oropharynx, and nasopharynx known as the Waldeyer ring of lymphoid tissue.

Tonsils that normally are referred to are palatine. They are present in the pharynx on either side of the throat. When we open our mouth wide, we can see them oval pea-sized lumps behind the throat. They are large in children but they decrease in size in adults.

Tonsils stones happen when debris gets caught in the groove of tonsils. Then white blood cells bout the debris creating a rock-like stone. Usually, these stones can be removed by brushing, water pik, or by the dentist.

In children, the most common problem is inflammation of the tonsils called tonsillitis. This inflammation can be viral or bacterial and treated by throat lozenges, gargling saltwater. Streptococcus bacterial infection commonly affects children which are treated by antibiotics.

Tonsillitis is characterized by

  • Fever
  • Hoarseness or loss of voice
  • Issues with swallowing
  • The white or yellow covering on the tonsils

This infection if reoccurs 4-7 times a year is called recurrent tonsillitis. The treatment for it is tonsillectomy.

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the palatine tonsils are removed. Reasons for removal are

  • Airway obstruction due to enlarged tonsils
  • Sleep apnea
  • Recurrent tonsillitis
  • Snoring
  • The second attack of Quinsy
  • Tonsil cancer
  • Peritonsillar abscess

Sometimes along with palatine tonsils, adenoids are also removed. Recovery time is from 10 days to 2 weeks.

Tonsillectomy does not appear to affect the long-term immune system of the children. More long studies are yet to be carried out to fully understand the effects of tonsillectomy on the immune system.



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